Database Management Basics

Database management is the system to manage information that is essential to the organization’s business processes. It includes data storage, distributing it to applications and users making changes as needed and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from being corrupted by unexpected failure. It is a part of the informational infrastructure of a business that aids in decision-making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database consists of tables that organize data according to a certain schema, such as one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table has a set of fields, called attributes, which provide information about the entities that comprise the data. The most well-known type of database currently is a relational model, developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based upon normalizing data to make it more user-friendly. It also makes it simpler to update data by avoiding the need to update many sections of the database.

The majority of DBMSs support a variety of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability, and other operational concerns such as the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It can include a mixture of external views based on different models of data and can include virtual tables that are computed with generic data to enhance the performance.

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